Hemileia vastatrix affects the plant by covering leaf surface area and destroying cell function resulting in a reduction in the rate of photosynthesis. Berkeley and Broome named the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, "Hemileia" referring to the half smooth characteristic of the spores and "vastatrix" for the devastating nature of the disease.[5]. It attacks coffee tree leaves and can cause substantial defoliation. Growing in the shade decreases the presence of dew on the leaves but moisture that exists on the leaves does not evaporate as fast. [8] Spore germination only happens when temperature ranges from 13 to 31 degrees Celsius and peaks at 21 degrees Celsius; furthermore, appressorium formation is highest at 11 degrees Celsius and has a linear decline in production until 32 degrees Celsius when there is little to no production. Hemileia lifecycle begins with the germination of uredospores through germ pores in the spore. Coffee Leaf Rust is a disease caused by the fungus Hemileia vastatrix, which feeds on the living cells of the coffee plant, consuming the plant’s nutrients for its own reproduction. Historically, coffee leaf rust has had a devastating impact on coffee. Thought to have evolved alongside coffee in Ethiopia, leaf rust was first reported in 1861 near Lake Victoria in East Africa, and coffee farmers have been battling it ever since. Some early data from Ceylon documenting the losses in the late 19th century indicate coffee production was reduced by 75%. Due to the complexity of accurately accounting for losses attributed to CLR, there are few records quantifying yield losses. The disease coffee leaf rust (CLR) was first described and named by Berkley and Broom in the November 1869 edition of the Gardeners Chronicle. At first, coffee was considered a beverage of the nobility. Developed over five generations by Cenicafe between 1968 and 1982, the Colombia variety (Variedad Colombia) was the result of successful hybridization of Caturra with the Timor Hybrid. Methods of combating and controlling the disease include fungicide application and stumping diseased plants and replacing them with resistant breeds. The coffee grown in Turrialba is probably one of the least intensive GERMANY. CLR disease is a big problem in coffee plantations in Peru, declared in sanitary emergency by government (Decreto Supremo N° 082-2013-PCM). Well, let´s find out. Coffee leaf rust : epidemiology and management in Ethiopia. Dispersal by insects is unlikely and therefore insignificant. During 1913 it crossed the African continent from Kenya to the Congo, where it was found in 1918, before spreading to West Africa, the Ivory Coast (1954), Liberia (1955), Nigeria (1962–63) and Angola (1966). It damages trees and reduces yields by causing premature drop of infected leaves. By the 1920s CLR was widely found across much of Africa and Asia, as well as Indonesia and Fiji. Coffee was introduced in France in 1657, and in Austria and Poland after the 1683 Battle of Vienna, when coffee was captured from supplies of the defeated Turks. The causal fungus was first fully described by the English mycologist Michael Joseph Berkeley and his collaborator Christopher Edmund Broome after an analysis of specimens of a “coffee leaf disease” collected by George H.K. Thwaites in Ceylon. Wardia vastatrix J.F.Hennen & M.M.Hennen (2003), Hemileia vastatrix is a fungus of the order Pucciniales (previously also known as Uredinales) that causes coffee leaf rust, a disease that is devastating to susceptible coffee plantations. Coffee originates from high altitude regions of Ethiopia, Sudan, and Kenya and the rust pathogen is believed to have originated from the same mountains. Coffea Arabica, the species that produces the best coffee, is the most susceptible of the coffee plants to coffee leaf rust. Coffee rust epidemics, with intensities higher than previously observed, have affected a number of countries including: Colombia, from 2008 to 2011; Central America and Mexico, in 2012–13; and Peru and Ecuador in 2013. As of 1990, coffee rust has become endemic in all major coffee-producing countries. Wondimu M. Dissertation from University of London, 21 Jul 2010 ETH: 338806 . Effect and has been reported in the same conditions as many coffee estates in Sri Lanka, Brazil and,. A leaf disease caused by the early 1960s coffee leaf rust is introduced from which country the disease hail from the 1860s to... 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